Using BS styles

Multiple choice

What's Bootstrap?

Saving
A

A method for loading a website on a server that reduces response time for remote users.

B

A framework that makes it easier to build professional websites.

C

Software that automatically creates websites, when users answer a few questions.

D

A Swedish death metal band, that hit themselves with straps on their boots.

Not graded. So why do it?

Multiple choice

What's a CDN?

Saving
A

A network of fast servers for delivering common files.

B

A content network that monitors all internet use in Canada.

C

CSS file that defines links to other CSS files, and loads them as one group.

D

The world's biggest strawberry.

Not graded. So why do it?

Lesson contents

Bootstrap does many things for us. One is that it gives basic HTML tags a standard, professional look.

What tags look like in BS

BS makes every HTML tag look good, without your adding any classes. Here's some code:

  • <h1>h1 here</h1>
  • <h2>h2 here</h2>
  • <p>I'm a paragraph.</p>
  • <ul>
  •   <li>Unordered</li>
  •   <li>List</li>
  • </ul>
  • <ol>
  •   <li>Ordered</li>
  •   <li>List</li>
  • </ol>
  • <p>Here is a link to <a href="borderlands.com">Borderlands</a>.</p>
  • <p>Here's Moze from Borderlands 3.</p>
  • <p>
  •   <img src="moze.png" alt="Moze">
  • </p>
  • <p>One of Kieran's fave games.</p>

Basic stuff, no CSS classes added. Here's what it looks like:

Basic tags output

The page looks pretty good, without doing anything special. You can check it out.

This is how you'll use Bootstrap most of the time. Just type your stuff as normal, and let Bootstrap style it.

Basic styles

Bootstrap has basic CSS classes that do Nice Things. Let's check out a few. The deets are in the official docs.

Typography

Typography has to do with fonts. BS has a bunch o' typography classes.

Make a paragraph stand out by adding .lead.

  • <p class="lead">
  •   Renata is a mellow doggo.
  • </p>

It looks like:

Renata is a mellow doggo.

Here's a cool one for abbreviations.

  • <p>
  •   Learn <abbr title="HyperText Markup Language" class="initialism">HTML</abbr> for a better life.
  • </p>

Here's what it looks like. Hover your mouse over "HTML".

Learn HTML for a better life.

Another one:

  • <p class="text-center">
  •   Moze has a great big bear.
  • </p>

Moze has a great big bear.

Colors

BS gives you classes that let you use colors consistently across your site. For example:

  • <p class="text-success">
  •   You won!
  • </p>

You won!

  • <p class="text-danger">
  •   Danger! Sloths approaching! Slowly.
  • </p>

Danger! Sloths approaching! Slowly.

Check the docs for more.

Reflect

Here's what the text-primary does to color.

  • <p>
  •   This is the <span class="text-primary">text-primary</span> class.
  • </p>

This is the text-primary class.

What the problem with the text-primary class?

If you were logged in as a student, the lesson would pause here, and you'd be asked to type in a response. If you want to try that out, ask for an account on this site.
Adela
Adela

It's blue. Links are blue. The user would expect to be able to click on blue things.

Right. It's a bad idea to use blue for text that isn't clickable.

Borders

You can add borders to just about anything.

  • <p class="border">
  •   Doggos are the best animals.
  • </p>

Doggos are the best animals.

It needs some padding, but we'll fix that later. Remember that padding is the space between the border and the text.

You can put borders around divs. That's good for grouping content:

  • <div class="border">
  •   <p>Reasons to love doggos.</p>
  •   <ul>
  •     <li>Always glad to see you</li>
  •     <li>Fun to play with</li>
  •     <li>Cuddly</li>
  •     <li>Happy</li>
  •   </ul>
  •   <p>And many more!</p>
  • </div>

Reasons to love doggos.

  • Always glad to see you
  • Fun to play with
  • Cuddly
  • Happy

And many more!

You can add rounding to the border corners.

  • <p class="border rounded">
  •   Rounded border.
  • </p>

Rounded border.

Spacing

You can add margins and padding easily. Check out a border example again:

  • <p class="border">
  •   Doggos are the best animals.
  • </p>

Doggos are the best animals.

That's OK, but I'd like to add some padding. I could do this:

  • <p class="border p-1">
  •   Doggos are the best animals.
  • </p>

Doggos are the best animals.

For more padding, increase the number after the p-:

  • <p class="border p-3">
  •   Doggos are the best animals.
  • </p>

Doggos are the best animals.

Cool, no?

Margins, the same thing. Remember that margins are outside the borders.

  • <p class="border p-2 m-4">
  •   Doggos are the best animals.
  • </p>

Doggos are the best animals.

Change the number after the m- to change the border size.

You can set spacing for individual sides, too. For example, mr-2 sets the right margin. mt-4 sets the top margin to be twice as large.

Take a look at the docs on spacing for the deets.

Rounded borders work better with spacing. Here's a rounded border that looks pretty good.

  • <p class="border rounded p-2 m-3">
  •   Rounded border.
  • </p>

Rounded border.

For really rounded:

  • <p class="border rounded-pill p-4 m-3">
  •   Really rounded border.
  • </p>

Really rounded border.

Mess with the rounded-pill class. You'll be glad you did.

Tables

Just add the table class to the table tag, and get Nice Things.

  • <table class="table">
  •   <thead>
  •     <tr>
  •       <th>Dog</th>
  •       <th>Weight (kg)</th>
  •       <th>Happiness (1-10)</th>
  •     </tr>
  •   </thead>
  •   <tbody>
  •     <tr>
  •       <td>Oscar</td>
  •       <td>40</td>
  •       <td>10</td>
  •     </tr>
  •     <tr>
  •       <td>Renata</td>
  •       <td>14</td>
  •       <td>9</td>
  •     </tr>
  •     <tr>
  •       <td>Rosie</td>
  •       <td>3</td>
  •       <td>10</td>
  •     </tr>
  •   </tbody>
  • </table>
Dog Weight (kg) Happiness (1-10)
Oscar 40 10
Renata 14 9
Rosie 3 10

Add another class to add zebra-striping, like this:

  • <table class="table table-striped">
  •   <thead>
  •     <tr>
  •       <th>Dog</th>
  •       <th>Weight (kg)</th>
  •       <th>Happiness (1-10)</th>
  •     </tr>
  •   </thead>
  •   <tbody>
  •     <tr>
  •       <td>Oscar</td>
  •       <td>40</td>
  •       <td>10</td>
  •     </tr>
  •     <tr>
  •       <td>Renata</td>
  •       <td>14</td>
  •       <td>9</td>
  •     </tr>
  •     <tr>
  •       <td>Rosie</td>
  •       <td>3</td>
  •       <td>10</td>
  •     </tr>
  •   </tbody>
  • </table>
Dog Weight (kg) Happiness (1-10)
Oscar 40 10
Renata 14 9
Rosie 3 10

Check the docs for more awesome table stuff.

Images

You can do all sorts of things with images. Like this:

  • <img class="rounded border float-end p-1" src="http://webexamples.skilling.us/professional-sites/bootstrap-styles/moze.png" alt="Moze">

Note

-end means to the right. -start means to the left.

Moze

The p-1 added padding, so you could see the border.

Sometimes text gets too close to floated images. Check this out:

Text too close to floated image

The text seems a little too close to the image. This is better:

Gap between image and text

How to do that? Here's the code.

  • <img class="float-end ms-4 mb-4" src="../images/dog4.jpg" alt="Doggo">

In the classes, ms means margin start (start is left). mb means margin bottom. Why 4? Just because. Play around until you get something you like. There's a formula for what the 4 means, but I find it easier just to mess around.

Remember we talked clearing floats? That's when you want content to start below something that's floated. BS has a clearfix class for that:

  • <p class="clearfix">The <code>p-1</code> added padding, so you could see the border.</p>

The class is on the last element that respects the float. You might never need it, but clearfix is there if you do. Sometimes I have to play around, adding it to different elements, to make it work.

Here's a cool one:

  • <img class="rounded-circle" src="http://webexamples.skilling.us/professional-sites/bootstrap-styles/moze.png" alt="Moze">
Moze
Georgina
Georgina

Did you use an imaging editing program, like Gimp, to make the image round?

Nope. Take a look at the image URL. It's the same in the last two examples, but the image is round in the second one. The rounded-circle class did the rounding.

Ray
Ray

Wow, that's cool!

Yes. Yes, it is.

Exercise

Exercise

Birthday invitation

Make a birthday invitation that looks like this:

Output

Use the Bootstrap template. Use your own photo. Use Bootstrap classes to make it circular (or oval or whatever BS does). Use only built-in Bootstrap classes; don't make your own.

Submit the URL, as usual.

Up next

If you don't like the BS styles, you can override them. Let's see how.